Gazing into GHG’s Palantir: ‘Farewell to Lórien’

The Grey Havens Group Palantir has seen and heard much, but it is unpredictable and often fell. As the mists clear, the withered leaves of past conversations are revealed in barest shreds…

“Farewell to Lórien” is a highly poetic, emotional, and atmospheric chapter. Throughout, there is an undercurrent of sadness, melancholy and foreshadowing. Just as the chapter marks the end of the Fellowship’s stay in Lórien, it also continues the inexorable march of the elves towards doom. As such it is a very heavy chapter, setting the tone for many such impossible decisions and partings to come.

The boats given to the company are emblematic of elvish advice, neither saying yes or no. They are helpful and do aid the quest, but they push off the inevitable choice of direction. For now, in their grief at parting, this is perhaps a good thing. It is also darkly humorous that in this action Celeborn is able to pass all responsibility or blame for the outcome of their quest to the Fellowship.

In this chapter, in particular, and increasingly as the journey continues, Boromir is quite the arrogant boor. When all others contemplate their future path in silence, recognizing the ultimate choice truly lies with Frodo and Aragorn, Boromir refuses to shut up, but presses his agenda relentlessly. Though this has largely been his goal from the beginning of the quest, the use of the word “suddenly” in the midst of his argument is critical. This is a key word Tolkien uses almost exclusively to indicate the influence of the Ring. Therefore, it is likely some (or much) of his vehemence is not wholly his own.

Why is Boromir so susceptible to the power of the Ring? In part because he continues to see it as a tool and a weapon, and always has. As a soldier, he understands orders, and so accepted the need to destroy the Ring. However, as time has passed, that resolve, if ever there was, is slipping away. Based on his family, and his profession, it is likely Boromir has grown to weigh his own self-worth by his valor in arms and victories in the battlefield. He has always been under his father’s thumb, feeling the need to impress, whereas Faramir, as the second son, is able to escape and gain perspective in other pursuits. The Ring is a means to an end, a way to ultimate respect.

Elrond, compared to Galadriel, who almost constantly discusses the fading of the elves, appears indifferent or even defeatist. There is not as evident a desire in Imladris to preserve and maintain time. Being of the Wise, and half-elven, and lord of one of the last havens of the Noldor, such resignation begins to make sense. Their coming to Middle-earth has led to nothing but sorrow; and Imladris is little more than a memory clinging to the glories of ages long past. And so the coming age of Men, and the final voyage to the West, would come as relief. In Lothlórien, the times of the past and the place have been preserved whole and entire. Though a pocket, outside while in the world, it maintains the bliss of a bygone age. One is memory and lore, the other joy in the present.

The hiatus in Lórien is proof of the dangers in meeting friendly allies along the road. It becomes a safe haven, from which the questors may hide from the concerns of their task. Though here they require emotional healing after the loss of Gandalf, it is an implicit danger which all come to understand after leaving.

Upon leaving Caras Galadhon, the company now faces the West. Whereas entry into the city symbolically places one’s back to the Valar, leaving it and facing West acknowledges the need to move on, to accept the challenges of life and the quest no matter the outcome. This is a debatable piece of applicability, but leads to many insights.

In the gift-giving, in a reversal of the initial welcome, Frodo is included in among the rest of the Fellowship seated before Galadriel and Celeborn. This may be read in many ways, but appears to indicate that the test is past. Galadriel has made her decision; there will be no more temptation and therefore no explicit danger in the Ring.

Much time was spent discussing the genealogy of Galadriel and her history. She is Fëanor’s neice, the daughter of his half-brother Finarfin. It is said the light of the Two Trees of Valinor shown in her golden hair. Whether out of greed for use in his jewels, or lust of beauty, Fëanor desired her, and requested a lock of her hair. She refused. This is the history which makes Gimli’s request so striking and potentially dangerous. Her past experience leads Galadriel to question Gimli closely to determine the nature of his request.

Like the phial given to Frodo, this gift binds the current quest to the First Age, particularly to the life and adventures of Eärendil. The lock of hair bears the light of the Two Trees, just as the phial captures the light of the last Silmaril in the waters of Galadriel’s mirror. This is truly the last war of the War of the Jewels, as Sam realizes at the stairs of Cirith Ungol.

The point is driven home by Galadriel’s song of farewell, which evokes a sense of great age and sorrow. Looking closely at the translated text, it is evident that this song is likely one from the first age, sung in farewell and even sorrow, as the eldar sent ships west in search of Valinor. The key hint lies in the description of “Varda…[uplifting] her hands…and all paths are drowned in deep shadow…” which beautifully portrays the mists of confusion placed in bulwark around the Blessed Realm. At the same time, the song rings of hope, and may even be the words of Elwing singing as Eärendil leaves the shores of Middle-earth. The hopes of the two singers, Galadriel and Elwing, are much the same. The desire is for hope beyond hope and a salvation which seems beyond all grasp.

In a humorous aside, Galadriel’s miraculous appearance at the point to sing her farewell was questioned. While the Fellowship travels by water, under a swift current, she is somehow able to walk, or teleport to the meeting of the two streams, a seeming impossibility.

… until the hour of our next meeting.

Gazing into GHG’s Palantir: ‘The Bridge of Khazad-dûm’

The Grey Havens Group Palantir has seen and heard much, but it is unpredictable and often fell. As the mists clear, the withered leaves of past conversations are revealed in barest shreds…

When any group comes together to discuss “The Bridge of Khazad-dûm,” there is one supremely controversial topic which must be either discussed and vehemently argued or just as forcefully ignored: that is, the nature of Balrogs and the infamous question of wings.

Tolkien actually gives two distinct descriptions, one which uses metaphorical language and one which does not. This leaves the door open for interpretation. The color structure of the Balrog: blacks, reds, and yellows, demonstrate its affinity for Morgoth as they are coordinating color schemes. As discussed at the Pass of Caradhras, perhaps this is a case where ambiguity is a purposeful seed for fascination and study.

Color plays a large part in the chapter, particularly black, greys, yellows and white. They are used to contrast the destructive power of flame and evil and the holy or sacred primordial light of the secret fire which Gandalf wields.

The nature of the Watcher in the water at the west gate is a complete mystery; Tolkien gives very little detail to work from. It is possible the lake was contrived by orcs, but it is also likely a natural formation. Based on description from the record of the colony, the waters were once much higher, up to the door in fact. This refers back to the curious use of the word “narrow” in the previous chapter to describe the shore between the waters and the cliff-face. Perhaps the narrowness describes the space between the cliff and the natural shore, which has receded.

Stars appear on the page as a break between ‘chapters’ in the book the Fellowship finds. Why are these here, let alone mentioned? In a purely literary sense, it denotes a passage of time or theme or chapter. This is what Gandalf states. This may be a dwarvish annotation. Another interesting, though largely unfounded link lies in the many pointed stars which make up the crown of Durin as well as his emblem. In this sense, as these stars immediately follow the declaration of Balin as Lord of Moria, it may be a sort of illuminated manuscript decoration to link him with the line of Durin. A stretch, but interesting.

Who writes in their last moments in a record? Especially something so immediate, as ‘they are coming’ or ‘we cannot get out?’ The closest modern correlation is a tweet or a text. It also bears great resemblance to the sort of notes found in sudden disasters, where word of love or explanation are shared in the last moments knowing no escape is at all possible. This understanding lends a great deal of tragedy and hopelessness to the last moments of the Colony. It shows a profound courage and a hope to pass on a warning to survivors or those who might come searching.

Silence or Hush and Darkness are real and palpable characters in this chapter and previous one. They set the reader on edge in anticipation for what may come. Like the sensation deprived, the reader begins to hear and feel things in the Dark and Hush, in an ever accelerating drumbeat of Doom. The drums only occur briefly when Pippin drops the stone and before the ambush, but they are urgently felt in their absence throughout the chapter.

In the sudden ambush at the Chamber of Mazarbul, there are clear hints demonstrating that the Fellowship has been closely followed. Particularly given later statements by Haldir, the entire ambush is in part orchestrated by Sauron. It is connected to the first sighting of the Nazghul over the Pass, and the crebain, and the wargs. In this then, beyond the pull of the Ring, it is explained why the orc chieftain would go for Frodo first. The mind can play tricks on a reader. It always seems great masses of foes are involved, though in reality, given Tolkien’s numbers, it is likely only a few score orcs at most are involved at first.

Gandalf’s moment at the door from the Chamber of Mazarbul is an example of Tolkien at his painterly best. He paints a wonderfully vivid image of the moment. Is it a given, however, who is on the other side of the door? The use of the word ‘ghash’ or fire always seemed to point to the Balrog, but there is no explicit evidence beyond this. In any case, after this Gandalf is bone weary. He has not slept more than a few hours in the last five days, not since the siting of the crebain before the attempt on the Pass. He is so tired he cannot even light his staff.

If the other behind the door is the Balrog, they presumably would also be as bone weary (or would have prevailed). Either way, this demonstrates the great power and control of Gandalf the Grey in this final confrontation. The timing of his final effort, where he breaks the bridge, speaks volumes. Depending on the reading, it may be a last ditch attack/defense, or timed to get rid of the Balrog before Boromir and Aragorn got far on the bridge and so a move of protection and self sacrifice.

Grief and trauma are an integral part of this chapter. The Fellowship has been through an incomprehensible emotional roller coaster. In no less than three hours they have been ambushed, Frodo presumed dead, Gandalf near defeated, Frodo discovered alive, been forced to wander in the dark, discovering stairs as they go, faced a Balrog, and lost Gandalf. By the end of the chapter their nerves are so frayed, Frodo does not even notice his own weeping until he sees Sam’s tears. It is not until they leave the long dark that grief fully encapsulates them.

And fittingly, in one of Tolkien’s few uses of onomatopoeia, the chapter is marked by the constant beat of Doom, drumbeats in the deep.

… until the hour of our next meeting.

Gazing into GHG’s Palantir: ‘A Journey in the Dark’

The Grey Havens Group Palantir has seen and heard much, but it is unpredictable and often fell. As the mists clear, the withered leaves of past conversations are revealed in barest shreds…

When it came time to discuss “A Journey in the Dark,” the discussion began at the beginning (novel for us, I know), commenting on Gandalf’s desire to go through Moria, which he set aside in order to try the Redhorn Pass at Aragorn’s urging. There is the appearance here that Gandalf is headed for a fated confrontation, a path he knows he must follow, though he may not know why or where it leads. This revealed interesting parallels with the Doctor; particularly with regards to his finding his way after the TARDIS lands him who-knows-where.

The adversity the Fellowship confronts after the defeat at the Mountain reveals their inner character. Merry and Pipping perk up at the thought of return to Rivendel or even wish they had just returned the Shire. Gimli is raring to go into the Mines. Aragorn is a pragmatist and cautious, warning of danger but willing to take the necessary path. Borromir is still the broken record, wanting to take the Ring back to Gondor to be used as a weapon. And Frodo is stuck with the quest and will do what he must to see it through…and Sam will follow him (though not without tears, as is seen with Bill the pony).

There are other paths which may have been taken, like the High Pass by Rivendel or even the lower pass below Moria. Why are these not considered? There can be no definitive answers, only guesses. First the High Pass may have been overlooked due to concerns of weather, and gathering orcs in the north. Second, Gandalf obviously had some purpose in wishing to go through Moria. Third, after the Pass, they have traveled by day and are exposed, Moria is a way to hide or misdirect.

Interestingly, each time the company comes to the point of making a conscious decision of direction, they are forced along their path. The warg attack comes right on the tale of the Company passing the choice on to Frodo (a decision he refuses to make, by the way). The wargs howl just before the Watcher attacks, panicking Bill, and cutting off escape. The Watcher attacks before they can change their mind to flee; and blocks the door so they cannot turn back. All of this is indicative of a fated path, instrumental in the reformation of Gandalf the Grey as Gandalf the White.

Gandalf makes a quick comment to Legolas and Gimli to be friends as a help to him. Is this his dying wish? Or rather, might the two later interpret it as such? It is one of the last things he says DIRECTLY to them personally. Either they are, and intended as such if Gandalf knows something of what comes, or they would certainly be interpreted as such after the trauma of his fall. The question comes back to Gandalf’s nature, which may be summed up in a series of titles: chess-player, manipulator, diplomat, or guidance counselor. He works to bring people together, to move them into their proper roles and relationships…to enflame them with the will to do the tasks at hand. His role parallels the function of his ring. And so, it is also feasible, in guiding Gimli and Legolas he moved them on the path of friendship, not only by the bonds of dying wish, but also by fanning the flames of the spirit by virtue of his ring.

The necessary mythic element of the journey into the underworld may explain, in part, the purely literary reasons the Fellowship has taken this path. As in classical mythology, this is required for Gandalf’s transformation and actualization as the White. There remains, however, a level of doubt and mystery even for Gandalf. As a maiar in human form, he is limited in power and knowledge, perhaps purposefully to ensure the movements of the world are not orchestrated by his own efforts but by the efforts of the Children of Iluvatar.

The maxims of Boromir and Aragorn with regards to the wargs and orcs are really societal indicators: of Boromir’s upbringing in a more civilized locale, and the dangers of Aragorn in the Wild.

As has been noted in previous chapters, the good professor often uses odd or rare words and word play to emphasize a point or create a meta-narrative. This occurs a couple times in this chapter alone The first is the use of the word ‘fathom’ to describe the height of a cliff before the stair falls. Fathom is usually a term used to describe depth of water. Water words and imagery are prevalent in this section of the narrative, but there is much more to be read here in the meta-narrative. The traditional form may be used to describe how the valley the Fellowship traverses was once carved out by the flowing waters of the falls/stream. However, the verb means to penetrate, to puzzle out or to come to understand, which leads in perfectly with the scene at the doors.

Another possible moment of word-play comes in Tolkien’s choice to describe a 36′ wide shore as “narrow.” Though the clear path between stone and root appears narrow, and should be the subject of the description, it is not. Looking again at the meaning of the word, it may be indicative of the immense length of the lake, so the shore is narrow for its length. However, there is another meaning which again bears directly on the scenes to follow: almost not successful, very close to failure, almost not enough for success.

Why to holly trees specifically frame the doors of Durin? Since ancient times, holly has had a sacred nature based on its qualities as an evergreen. However, perhaps the actual physical nature of holly is more pertinent in this instance, which as a tree-lover, Tolkien presumable knew well. First, the holly is an evergreen, with red berries, which come in winter. As such, it is a traditional symbol for renewal and everlasting life, which is why it is so commonly used in Christmas decor today. In liturgical colors, green is used as a sign of new and everlasting life. Red is indicative of martyrdom and sacrifice. Both colors are intrinsically tied to the celebration of Christmas.

The holly tree has grey bark. Not only that, but in the dark at the gates, any green it may have would also appear grey in the gloom. However, its wood is very light, almost white. In the destruction of the holly trees, therefore, is a powerful potential symbol of Gandalf’s own destruction; the necessity that the Grey be destroyed, but brought back to life so the inner White could be revealed.

Gandalf’s struggles with the password are very much a sort of philological study and must bear directly on Tolkien’s own experience. Often the answers in life stare us in the face and we have only to change our vantage point to find them. Such a change in perspective is the necessary and right way to initiate entry into a new world or new phase in a journey. In this shift of focus the characters are prepared or enervated in order to meet the challenges of their next tasks.

… until the hour of our next meeting.